Archive for the ‘Soo Bahk Do’ Category

21 Oct 2013

  • Posted by Utah Martial Arts Feeds
  • Role of Ship Sam Seh in the Art

    This Article comes from Wasatch Martial Arts Blog
    To see the full original article click here


    The Ship Sam Seh was an integral part of the evolution of the art of Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan. The Ship Sam Seh is a systematic approach to the art of Tae Kuk Kwon, teaching self defense theory through the practice of Hyung. Within the Tae Kuk Kwon hyung, you can find all of the points of Ship Sam Seh. It’s important to note that Ship Sam Seh philosophy goes beyond physical training and includes Weh Gong, Neh Gong, and Shim Gong aspects. The scope of this article will look primarily at the Weh Gong application of Ship Sam Seh and how it affected the evolution of Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan in Hyung and Dae Ryun practice. First, we examine the history of Ship Sam Seh.

    Historical Context

    Ship_Sam_SehThroughout all of history, man has tried to understand the workings of the universe and his relationship with both Heaven and Earth. One of the earliest texts dedicated to the study of nature and the relationship between the elements is the I Ching 易經 (Ju Yuk in Korean). The I Ching represents the world via 64 sets of of six lines each called hexagrams (卦 gwe). The Solid line —– represents Yang and a broken line — – represents Um. The interactions between the solid lines (yang) and the broken lines (um) were represented by the Um and Yang symbol, called Tae Kuk (太極), meaning Grand Ultimate. I equate the teachings of I Ching to simply mean Um/Yang Philosophy.

    In ancient Korea, the traditional Um/Yang symbol had three distinct sections instead of two: heaven, earth and human. These people deduced that whenever two forces opposed one another one of two things would happen: one force would
    dominate the other, thus one would be superior and the other inferior; or the two forces would be equal, becoming neutral. They examined how the forces of Um and Yang impacted Humanity. This is the essence of I Ching. Everything around us has an opposite: hot and cold, high and low, summer and winter, fire and water. Um energy is soft, yielding and passive. Yang is hard, aggressive and active. Striking a balance between Um and Yang energies would result in Tae Guk or Grand Ultimate. Tae Guk is a state of neutrality where perfect harmony exists. Energies naturally flow from yang to um and back to yang effortlessly. Neither force dominates the other.

    Western minds think in a linear fashion with a beginning and multiple steps leading to an end. Conversely, Eastern thought can be illustrated better by a circle. There is neither a beginning nor an end but a circle filled with a number of phases, each leading in both directions to another. An example that can be found in both Western and Eastern culture is the concept of the “circle of life”. Initially, you may think of life as a straight line beginning with birth (yang) and ending in death (um). However, after we die, our bodies return to the earth and give nutrients to the soil to produce more life (yang), which will eventually produce more death (um). This endless circle is an example of how nature is constantly flowing from Yang to Um energy.

    Daoism and the martial arts

    This Um/Yang philosophy can be found in every aspect of Korean culture including Astrology, agriculture, architecture, nutrition and even fighting arts (kwon bup). The variation of Um/Yang philosophy that correlates with kwon bup is known as Ship Sam Seh (13 Principles/Influences/Postures), though the application is much more holistic than mere “fist techniques”.

    Most scholars agree that the martial arts from Japan, Okinawa, and Korea all stem from China. Where there may be documentation of Chinese martial arts beginning before the Shaolin Temple, we can agree that Shaolin is the most famous. There is also some evidence that shows that the indigineous Korean martial art Soo Bahk was created in isolation of Chinese influence. While that may or may not be true, Hwang Kee, Chang Shi Ja received most of his formal training in China and was heavily influenced by Chinese styles such as So Rim Jang Kwon and Tae Kuk Kwon. As a result, to better understand the impact of Ship Sam Seh on our Art, it’s important for us to take a look into Chinese martial arts.

    As early as the first centuries BC, physicians would recommend calisthenic exercises called “daoyin” (導引), which translates to “guiding and pulling.” These were used to both cure and prevent disease and focused on both body movement and breathing techniques. These would strengthen your body and provide rejuvenation by stimulating meridians and improving Ki (氣), or vital energy. An old Zhuangzi quote demonstrates the effectiveness of daoyin:

    To pant, to puff, to hail, to sip, to spit out the old breath and draw in the new, practicing bear-hangings and bird-stretchings, longevity his only concern–such is the life favored by the scholar who practices daoyin, the man who nourishes his body, who hopes to live to be as old as Pengzu, for more than eight hundred years.1” 

    At the Shaolin Temple and elsewhere, martial arts training was coupled with daoyin exercises for longevity. Some of these exercises are still practiced by Soo Bahk Do practitioners today and can be found in Hwang Kee, Chang Shi Ja’s Volume I textbook. The first is Moo Pahl Dan Kuhm (八段錦) more commonly known in the martial arts community as Ba Duan Jin, which means 8 level brocade or silk2. The second is Yuk Keun Kyung (易筋經), more commonly known as Yi Jin Jing, translated to Changing Tendons Classic3 . The prior is used to stretch the body while the former is used to strengthen the body. Both circulate Ki, open the meridians, and utilize Um/Yang philosophy. Over time, these Neh Gong exercises became commonplace and the martial arts broadened from a strictly military or self defense focus, to a total wellness system for self defense, internal health, and mental well-being. It’s important to note that Ship Sam Seh has much more than mere martial application, but was primarily used for increased longevity. The Song of Ship Sam Seh asks the question: “What is the main purpose of the martial arts?” The following verse gives the answer: “Rejuvenation and prolonging of life beyond the normal span.”

    Tae Kuk Kwon and Ship Sam Seh 

    The Ship Sam Seh is broken down into two components, each a representation of Um/Yang Philosophy: Pal Gwe or 8 Forces/Directions and Oh Haeng, or 5 Energies/Elements. They were used as fundamental principle of Tae Kuk Kwon. Though the creator of Tae Kuk Kwon is unknown, many attribute Chang San Feng (張三豐), or Jang Sam Bong in Korean, as thefounder4. In his treatise, the Tae Kuk Kwon Kyung (太極拳經), he introduces Ship Sam Seh5: Peng, Lu, Chi, An,Ts’ai, Lieh, Chou, and K’are equated to the Eight Trigrams.

    The first four are the cardinal directions; Ch’ien [South; Heaven],
    K’un [North; Earth],
    K’an [West; Water], and
    Li [East; Fire].
    The second four are the four corners:
    Sun [Southwest; Wind],
    Chen [Northeast; Thunder],
    Tui [Southeast; Lake], and
    Ken [Northwest; Mountain].
    Advance (Chin), Withdraw (T’ui),
    Look Left (Tso Ku), Look Right (Yu Pan), and Central Equilibrium (Chung Ting)
    are equated to the five elements:
    Metal, Wood, Water, Fire, and Earth
    All together these are termed the Thirteen Postures

    Having an understanding of Ship Sam Seh philosophy will teach you how to react to neutralize an attack. If someone attacks high (yang), then counter low (um). If your opponent has a strong straight line (yang), then side-step off of his line (um). There are, however, more strategies than merely Um and Yang. You have only scratched the surface of the possibilities. The Pal Gwe and the Oh Haeng are derivatives of Um/Yang, each having an Um or Yang characteristic, but each is also distinct with its own set of unique attributes.

    Pal Gwe

    The Pal Gwe, or 8 forces, are connected to the 8 directions on a compass. The directions are further divided into Sa Jung (four principle directions) and Sa Wu (four corners or intermediary directions). This shows your positioning in space and the ability to move in the 8 directions by stepping, hopping, lunging, etc. Without stepping, you can also use Pal Gwe on the way you move your mass. This is done by moving your waist: Left, Right, Forward, Backward, Up, Down, Clockwise, Counter clockwise.

    Besides physical direction (yang), each Gwe has a specific strategy or technique (um) associated with it that applies directly to dae ryun. Many of the indiviual techniques and strategies can also be found in the Yuk Ro and Chil Sung Hyung. The Sa Jung, or four principle directions, are considered “Yang” and are more aggressive and should be used when there is a greater distance between you and your opponent. The intent of these strategies may include exposing vulnerabilities for counter attacking, redirecting the energy of an attack, creating distance from your opponent, or disrupting your opponent’s center and rendering him off-balance. The table below lists the Sa Jung.

    Translation Korean Hanja Gwe Meaning Energy
    Ward off Pong Ward off by disrupting center of gravity. Heaven
    Roll Back Ri circular, yielding motion Earth
    Press Jeh Press or squeeze offensively. Water
    Push Ahn Push with the palms. Fire

    The Sa Wu, or intermediary directions, are “Um” in nature and are designed for in-close fighting. In-close fighting has a new set of challenges and opportunities. You can trap, grab, or pull a limb as a counter measure or even as an attack. You can also strike, create distance, or disrupt your opponent’s center. Table 2 lists the Sa Wu.

    Korean Hanja Gwe Meaning Energy
    Pull Down Chae Grabbing energy, usually followed by a pull. Wind
    Split Yul Splits from striking energy Thunder
    Elbow Ju Elbow Striking Lake
    Shoulder Ko Striking with the full body Mountain

    Oh Haeng 

    Just as the Um and Yang philosophy was an ancient way of explaining nature, the Oh Haeng was a further attempt to explain more complex forces of nature. The Oh Haeng, or 5 Elements/Energies include: Fire, Water, Wood, Metal and Earth. Each element produces a unique energy (Ki) that can be cultivated for Kwon Bup and for health.

    Element Energy Season Color Virtue Emotion Organ
    Water Soo Ki Winter Black Respect Fear Kidneys
    Wood Mok Ki Sprint Green Kindness Anger Liver
    Fire Hwa ki Summer Red Trust Envy Heart
    Metal Kum Ki Fall White Honesty Sadness Lungs
    Earth Ji Ki Yellow Golden Rule Worry Spleen

    The 5 Elements demonstrate two important cycles in nature: the creative cycle and the destructive cycle. Creation occurs in the following order: Water is needed to grow wood, wood ignites to create fire, fire burns the wood which creates ash (earth), metal is extracted from the earth, and water condenses and forms on metal. You can use the creation cycle in many ways:

    Respect > Kindness > Trust > Openness > Honesty > Respect Fear > Anger > Envy > Worry > Sadness > Fear 

    The destructive cycle is equally as intuitive:  Water smothers a fireFire melts metalMetal chops wood. Wood breaks up the earthEarth muddies water.  The destructive cycle also holds true:

    Respect  >  Trust  >  Honesty  >  Kindness  >  Openness  >  Respect

    Fear        >  Envy   >  Sadness  >  Anger      >  Worry        >  Fear

    Within the context of Kwon Bup (fist fighting), each element has unique attributes and can be sub-divided by Um (internal) and Yang (external).  The Oh Bo are the 5 Steps—Advance, Retreat, Right, Left, Center—and refers only to direction of movement.  In traditional Ship Sam Seh, the 8 Postures are combined with the 5 Steps so Pong (ward off) could be performed by stepping forward, back, twisting right, twisting left, and maintaining your center.

    The internal strategies, called Oh Mal, are much more telling:  Listen, Connect, Adhere, Redirect and Yield.  Table 4 summarizes the Oh Mal.

    Element External Internal Meaning
    Fire Jin—Advance Chum Listen Hands—Listen with your whole body.
    Water Toe—Retreat Yeon Connect with your opponent.  Literally means “Chariots in a row”.  Control your opponent.
    Wood Koe–Move Left Jum Adhere, stick to your opponents (sticky hands).
    Metal Ban–Move Right Soo Follow and lead as you adhere.  Take control.
    Earth Jung– Centered Boo Joo Hang “Don’t Oppose Force”, or Following

    The O Mal, or 5 Strategies, seem to be  a set of ordered instructions on how to face an opponent effectively. Many of these strategies can be found intertwined in the Song of Ship Sam Seh–though the Song of Ship Sam Seh does not discuss Ship Sam Seh directly. The first step is to have good shi sun and “pay attention to the slightest change from full to empty.”  Listening hands has to do with reading your opponent based on his eyes, body movement, stance and breath.  Once you begin to read your opponent, then you try and connect with him.  “Surprising things will happen when you meet your opponent.”  Move in harmony with your opponent so that you move as one entity.  “Pay attention to the slightest change from full to empty”.  This is the beginning of controlling your opponent.

    Once you have gained a connection with your opponent, you must maintain it by adhering to him.  This can be done physically through an exercise called “sticky hands” or it could be a mu sang exercise where you maintain a harmonious connection with your partner.  Learn to follow or lead your opponent without aggression.  You will begin to control your opponent without any effort (don’t oppose force) as a result of this connection.  Each strategy seamlessly prepares you for the next strategy.  Unlike the rest of the Oh Haeng and Pal Gwe groupings, these strategies are to be used simultaneously.

    The O Mal can be better explained by Yang Ch’eng-fu’s writing of 1930 called Yang Family Forty Chapters:

    “Sticking means lifting and raising high; adhering means clinging and attachment; connecting means giving up yourself and not separating from the opponent; and following means that I respond to my opponent’s movements.”

    The principles of Ship Sam Seh that we have discussed thus far have been neatly packaged into a single form called Tae Kuk Kwon. Tae Kuk is the name for the Um/Yang symbol and Kwon translates to “fist”, or the fist fighting style of Um and Yang. Within the hyung, Pal Gwe and Oh Haeng are expressed. By practicing Tae Kuk Kwon Hyung, one can begin to understand the sparring principles of Tae Kuk Kwon. This same pattern can be found today in Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan through hyung practice.

    Soo Bahk Do & Ship Sam Seh

    Soo Bahk Do also has a set of Hyung that we use as guiding principles into our art. These are the hyung created by Hwang Kee, Chang Shi Ja called Chil Sung Hyung, Yuk Ro Hyung, and Hwa Sun Hyung. It’s also interesting to note that there is another set called Ship Dan Kuhm that are not widely practiced.

    After practicing the hyung, we extrapolate sparring concepts and apply them to Ja Yu Dae Ryun. Modern-day examples include Hwa Kuk Jang Kap Kwon and Peet Cha Gi. Even today, we are in the process of evolution as the USA TAC define a new way of sparring at the US National Festival that better demonstrates our philosophy of Um/Yang, connection, and unique Soo Bahk Do technique. This new sparring format better aligns with the principles we learn in our unique hyung.

    Though we do not practice all of the 8 postures of Tae Kuk Kwon, many of the principles are the same.

    Chain of Command

    Soo Bahk Do is known for it’s unique Use of Hip and clear understanding of chain of command from your mind, to your waist, elbows/knees, to each weapon on your hand and foot. Today, we reference Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion (F=ma) to explain the concept scientifically, but the application is the same. This principle is integral in Tae Kuk Kwon and is taught side by side with Ship Sam Seh. Jang Sam Bong, the legendary founder of Tae Kuk Kwon wrote a treatise on Tae Kuk Kwon, called the Tae Kuk Kwon Kyung. Within the text, he prefaced his explanation of Ship Sam Seh by explaining chain of command7:

    “Let the postures be without breaks or holes, hollows or projections, or discontinuities and continuities of form. The motion should be rooted in the feet, released through the legs, controlled by the waist, and manifested through the fingers. The feet, legs, and waist must act together simultaneously, so that while stepping forward or back the timing and position are correct. If the timing and position are not correct, the body becomes disordered, and the defect must be sought in the legs and waist.”

    Centuries later, The Song of Ship Sam Seh was written that alluded to these same principles with the following quotes:

    “The source of the will is in the waist.”
    “When the base of the spine is erect, energy rises to the top of the head”

    8 Ways of Moving the Huri

    Pal Gwe, or the 8 directions, can be likened to the 8 different ways of moving your center: front, back, up, down, right, left, twisting clockwise, twisting counter clockwise. I’ve found that every technique incorporates one or more of these directions. Ahp Cha Gi is primarily front. Dullryo Cha Gi utilizes front and twisting  with the direction depending on which foot is kicking. Hu Gul Choong Dan Soo Do Mahkee includes twisting, back, and down.

    Applying Oh Bo (5 Steps) to Soo Bahk Do “postures”

    As the mass moves in the 8 various directions using Soo Bahk Do techniques or “postures”, we can also apply the 5 steps. We attack generally by moving forward and defend by moving back. Oftentimes, a better defense is to step left or right into what we call a “sidestep.” The term “boo joo hang” is of particular interest because it means not opposing force. This is done traditionally by standing your ground and yielding to an attack without necessarily using footwork.

    Boo Joo Hang (non-opposition of force)

    Boo Joo Jang is a great way to summarize our philosophy towards sparring. Our blocks are very yielding and receptive in nature. We prefer to receive or redirect energy rather than attempt to stop or destroy it. Our focus on side stepping and creating distance from the attack are ways that we prefer to not oppose a force. A good example of this is the application of Do Mal Shik E Bon against a high attack.

    Harmony of Um and Yang (Tae Kuk)

    Our sparring is very unique with the purpose of creating harmony with a partner rather than creating conflict. This is a result of moving and responding according to the laws of nature. When one is offensive, the other is defensive. Clashing is discouraged as this creates disharmony by both parties moving offensively simultaneously. As discussed above, our blocks are truly “Um” in nature, receptive rather than aggressive. Most self defense systems portray a defense as an opportunity for offense and the block is done in an aggressive fashion. This is contrary to the laws of Um and Yang. Though our techniques are primarily from Weh Ga Ryu, our philosophy and approach is very Neh Ga Ryu, similar to Tae Kuk Kwon because we follow the same Ship Sam Seh philosophy.

    The history of our martial art is richly based in Ship Sam Seh philosophy which centers around the interaction between Um and Yang. The way we move and the way we approach combat is in alignment with Um and Yang. It is clear that Hwang Kee, Chang Shi Ja greatly valued the Ship Sam Seh and its elements can be found scattered throughout the forms he created. As we continue to better understand Ship Sam Seh and how it relates to our training, the art of Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan continues to evolve based on the principles of Ryu Pa.

    Works Cited

    1 Meir, Shahar The Shaolin Monastery 2008 p. 137-140

    2 Hwang, Kee, Tang Soo Do (Soo Bahk Do) 1992 p. 40

    3 Hwang, Kee Tang Soo Do (Soo Bahk Do) 1992 p. 34-37

    4 Wile, Douglas Lost Tai-chi Classics from the Late Ch’ing Dynasty 1996 p. 108

    5 http://www.scheele.org/lee/classics.html#tccching

    6 Wilde, Douglas Lost Tai-chi Classics from the Late Ch’ing Dynasty 1996 p. 67

    7 Lo/Inn/Amacker/Foe The Essence of Tai Chi Chuan The Literary Tradition 1979 p.20-21

    *The following article was submitted as a part of my O Dan Shim Sa for the Euro Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan™ Technical Advisory Committee. All of information provided here is based on my own personal research and may not align with the official teachings of the US Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan™ Federation.


    To comment on this post, please visit the original article click here

    16 Aug 2013

  • Posted by Utah Martial Arts Feeds
  • Background of Chil Sung Hyung

    This Article comes from Wasatch Martial Arts Blog
    To see the full original article click here


    Chil Sung Fan and SincerityThe Chil Sung (七 星) Hyung are the prime picture of the art of Soo Bahk Do™ Moo Duk Kwan™. Created in 1952 by Hwang Kee, Chang Shi Ja (CSJ), Chil Sung Hyung are the hallmark of the art of Soo Bahk Do™. They embody the knowledge Hwang Kee, CSJ acquired from decades of training and study. This essay will discuss the history, meaning, and character of the Chil Sung Hyung.

    To fully understand a hyung, it’s important to understand the history of its founder. This provides context and perspective on the form. We begin to understand its unique “Ryu Pa” as you understand the influences that played a part in its creation.

    Hwang Kee, CSJ’s training comprised of many martial arts throughout the years. He studied in numerous “Neh Ga (內家)” and “Weh Ga (外家)” systems including So Rim Jang Kwon (少林 拳), Tae Kuk Kwan (太極拳), Dham Doi Sip E Ro (潭腿), Tang Soo Do (唐手道)–Kara Te Do–, and Tae Kyun.

    Weh Ga Ryu

    Weh Ga Ryu (Outside House Style) in China is mainly recognized  as So Rim Jang Kwon, more commonly known in English as Shaolin Long Fist. It originated in the Buddhist temple at Shaolin. It’s known for it’s intense “ryun bup”, or conditioning of the body and a focus on strong, powerful hand and foot techniques. The long fist techniques are akin to our Hwa Kuk techniques that are found in many of the Chil Sung Hyung. Many of the same techniques– namely Jang Kap Kwon and Jang Kwon Do–can also be found in Dham Doi Sip E Ro, a foundational set of exercises practiced in many Jang Kwan systems.

    Weh Ga Ryu techniques are characterized as light, quick, and powerful. Other Weh Ga martial arts that influenced Chil Sung include Tang Soo Do (Kara Te Do), where you will find basic techniques such as Ha Dan Mahkee, Choong Dan Kong Kyuk, and Soo Do Kong Kyuk. One example of Tang Soo Do influence is the sequences in Chil Sung Sam Ro where you turn back up the front of the form line and perform Sang Dan Mahkee/Teul Oh Soo Do, Ahp Cha Gi, lunging Kap Kwon in Kyo Cha Rip Jaseh. This sequence can also be found in Pyong Ahn Sa Dan, which was influenced by Kong Sang Koon. These are both Tang Soo Do hyung.

    Neh Ga Ryu

    Conversely, Hwang Kee, CSJ studied a Neh Ga (Inside House) system called Tae Kuk Kwon (Tai Chi Chuan) that was created by Chinese nationals and centered around the tenants of Daoism, a religion founded in China by No Ja (Lao Tzu). Not only was it a practical martial art, but also focused on Daoyin(導引), or Daoist calisthenics. These were used for self cultivation and included exercises such as Ba Duan Jin (八段錦), or Moo Pahl Dan Kuhm in Korean, and Yi Jin Jing (易筋经), or Yuk Keun Kyung in Korean. Specific daoyin techniques can be found in some of the Chil Sung Hyung. Chil Sung Sa Ro for example, has the same posture as Moo Pahl Dan Kuhm #4.

    Within the Chil Sung Hyung, you will find many techniques influenced by Tae Kuk Kwon as well.  The preparation of the first technique of Chil Sung Il Ro is also the initial movement of Tae Kuk Kwon Hyung, called Pong (掤) or Ward Off. Other obvious Tae Kuk Kwon postures found in Chil Sung Hyung include Press (擠) and Push (按). I imagine after further study, other postures will be more apparent in the Chil Sung Hyung.

     Birth of Choong Ga Ryu

    When Hwang Kee, CSJ was translating portions of the Kwon Bup section of the Moo Yei Do Bo Tong Ji, he quoted a section comparing Neh Ga Ryu to Weh Ga Ryu. Within the following quote, it’s important to note that Chang Sam Bong (张三丰) is the founder of Tae Kuk Kwon. I have inserted some clarifying text in square brackets to better understand the passage:

    “After Chang Sam Bong mastered So Rim Bup [Shaolin Long Fist Style], he founded the Nai Ka [Neh Ga] system. If one can master a few Nai Ka [Neh Ga] techniques he will be victorious over the So Rim practitioner.

    It is stated earlier in this text that Nai Ka is more effective than Oi Ka (Weh Ga). The author [Hwang Kee, CSJ] translated these statements from the original text without any alterations. However, he does not necessarily agree with the assertion that Nai Ka can be the conqueror of So Rim after obtaining a few techniques. For practical purposes, we should not neglect the So Rim techniques.”

    Here it is apparent that Hwang Kee, CSJ saw value in both Neh Ga Ryu and Weh Ga Ryu, and thus created a new system called Choong Ga (中 家), or Middle House. The Chil Sung Hyung have characteristics of both Neh Ga and Weh Ga. Some techniques are light, fast, and powerful, where others focus more on breath, energy, heaviness, and Sun Sok Mi (line, speed, beauty) and we transition from one to the other with ease.

    Having both elements of Neh Ga and Weh Ga, the Chil Sung forms are truly representative of Hwang Kee, CSJ’s Choong Ga Ryu, leveraging the advantages of both philosophies of thought. Within the Chil Sung Hyung, however, you will find some techniques that neither fit the traditional mold of Neh Ga or Weh Ga. These are uniquely Soo Bahk and come directly from the Kwon Bup section of the Moo Yei Do Bo Tong Ji (武藝圖譜通志). The Moo Yei Do Bo Tong Ji was a war book on enemy war tactics, written by Park Je Ga and Lee Duk Mu during the reign of King Jong Jo,  that included the sword, spear, staff, and even open hand called Kwon Bup (拳法), or Fist Method. Inside it explained an ancient martial art system called Soo Bahk (手搏). The book had a diagram of a two-person form and had pages of text explaining various training methods and postures such as Yuk Ro and Ship Dan Kuhm.

    Some of these training methods and postures can be found in Chil Sung Hyung such as Ta Ko Shik (beating drum method), Po Wol Seh (Embrace the Moon Posture), etc. These are most closely aligned with the ancient art of Soo Bahk, retransformed after having been lost in time.

    A Guide for the Art

    From the complexity of the Chil Sung Hyung, it is apparent that the Chil Sung Hyung series is a compilation of Hwang Kee, CSJ’s knowledge throughout his life and a guide to understand his intentions for the art, combining the best practices of both Neh Ga Ryu and Weh Ga Ryu into his unique Choong Ga style. This line of thinking is further substantiated by understanding the name itself. Chil Sung means 7 Stars and it is often stated that these 7 Stars reference Ursa Minor, or the Little Dipper. The 7th Star is Polaris, the North Star, which was used as a guide for travelers to find their way. This is used as a metaphor that we can use the Chil Sung forms to guide our training in Soo Bahk Do™ Moo Duk Kwan™. It is through these forms that we can feel the essence of the Art.

    As I practice 6 of the 7 Chil Sung Hyung, a set of themes are apparent that teach fundamental concepts of the Art:

    • Chil Sung Il Ro – This hyung introduces Neh Gong techniques and allows us to focus on connection between your breath and chain of command throughout the technique. Earth Energy (Ji Ki) is a significant factor in the hyung.
    • Chil Sung E Ro – This hyung is the most basic and closest in style to the traditional hyung of Tang Soo Do. The focus is on balance and Ki Seh, or poise.
    • Chil Sung Sam Ro – The hyung is very active in nature, similar in energy to Bassai. It is through this hyung that many of the Soo Bahk Ki Cho are practiced such as Do Mal Shik, Ta Ko Shik, and Yo Shik.
    • Chil Sung Sa Ro – This is a physically demanding hyung with a clear emphasis on Shin Chook which translates to Relaxation and Tension but is also closely aligned with expansion and contraction.
    • Chil Sung O Ro – No other hyung allows you to more easily carry the energy from one movement to the next. It is through this hyung that you can learn to keep your arm full of energy (Ki).
    • Chil Sung Yuk Ro – Chil Sung Yuk Ro is by far the most complex of the six. Like Chil Sung O Ro, energy carries from one technique to the next. What I find unique in this hyung is the diversity of movements and a better understanding of space. You will find techniques on the ground, standing, in the air, spinning, and jump spinning.

    Chil Sung Chul Hak

    If we look deeper into the true meaning of Chil Sung, one must understand Korean culture and philosophy. Chil Sung is a well known term and Chil Sung monuments can be seen throughout Korea. Jang, Dae Kyu, Sa Bom Nim taught me on multiple occassions that Chil Sung is used in Korean daily life to understand the balance of nature and to provide physical health and total well-being.

    Chil Sung is a composite of Tae Guk (太極), or Um/Yang, plus O Haeng (五行), or 5 Elements or Energies .  The Um Yang is the red and blue symbol found on the South Korean Korean flag. Oh Haeng represents the 5 elements:  Wood, Metal, Fire, Water, and Earth.  Everything in our world are manifestations of Chil Sung and through careful study, we can find elements of Chil Sung throughout our training and also in our daily life.

    Applying the Weh Gong approach to Chil Sung philosophy will add richness to practicing Chil Sung Hyung. Throughout each hyung, the transitions from Um and Yang techniques are apparent and fulfilling. Chil Sung Il Ro is a prime example of going through slow, internal techniques, to quick and powerful techniques. One example of including O Haeng in your training is to incorporate the Yuk Ja Gyol (六字訣), or 6 Natural Sounds. These sounds will help each technique harness a distinct type of energy and feeling. There are also health benefits correlated to various internal organs as shown below:

    Sound Element/Energy Organ
    Shuuuu Wood Liver
    Haaaa Fire Heart
    Whooo Earth Spleen
    Tsssss Metal Lungs
    Fuuu Water Kidney
    Heeeee Neutral Triple Warmer

    As we delve deeper into Chil Sung Philosophy, we’ll find additional benefits of training Chil Sung Hyung and acquire a more profound understanding of the art of Soo Bahk Do™ Moo Duk Kwan™.

    In my opinion, Hwang Kee, CSJ’s culminating creation within the art of Soo Bahk Do™ is the Chil Sung Hyung. No other set of forms better exemplify all aspects of the art of Soo Bahk Do™ Moo Duk Kwan™. They truly are a guide with deep historical and practical significance.

    *The following article was submitted as a part of my O Dan Shim Sa for the Euro Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan™ Technical Advisory Committee. All of information provided here is based on my own personal research and may not align with the official teachings of the US Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan™ Federation.

    References

    Hwang, Kee, History of the Moo Duk Kwan, 1995, p. 14
    Tang Soo Do (唐手道) is a generic term that means “Way of the China Hand”. Pronounced “Kara Te” in Japanese, this was a term that the Korean people recognized in the early and mid 20th Century. Tang Soo Do today is known across the world as a generic term for those who have a historical connection to Hwang Kee, Chang Shi Ja. In this paper, I use the term Tang Soo Do in its original context, of Japanese Karate that came from the Ryukyu Island of Okinawa, which in turn came from China during the “Tang” Dynasty.
    Shahar, Meir, The Shaolin Monastery, 2008, p. 137-138
    Hwang, Kee, Tang Soo Do (Soo Bahk Do), 1992, p. 85
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liu_Zi_Jue

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    15 Apr 2012

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  • Dham Doi Ship E Ro (Tan Tui)

    This Article comes from Wasatch Martial Arts Blog
    To see the full original article click here


    12 Road Tan Tui, or Dham Doi Ship E Ro in Korean, is a set of basic Chang Quan (long fist/boxing) combinations with a unique emphasis on kicks. Hwang Kee, founder of Hwa Soo Do, Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan, and Soo Bahk Do, learned these exercises while he was in China training under his instructor Yang, Yuk Jin (Yang Chu Chin in Chinese). The History of Moo Duk Kwan, an autobiography of Hwang Kee, notes his training in China included Seh Bop (Postures), Bo Bup (Steps), Ryun Bup (Conditioning) and two sets of forms: Dham Doi Ship E Ro and Tae Kuk Kwon (Tai Chi Chuan). A future article will be written on these other disciplines.

    Since the 12 Set Tan Tui (彈腿)–as they are more commonly known in the martial arts community–were foundational to Hwang Kee’s martial arts career, it’s safe to assume that Tan Tui greatly influenced the Moo Duk Kwan system in a large way, particularly in his study of Soo Bahk found in the Kwon Bup (拳法) section of the Moo Yei Do Bo Tong Ji (武藝圖譜通志). You can quickly identify pieces and even entire sets of Tan Tui exercises in standard Moo Duk Kwan combinations, such as the Sam Kwan Kong Kyuk (Triple Fist Attack).

    Any student of Hwang Kee’s famous Yuk Ro forms, will find many correlations with Tan Tui. Yuk Ro, meaning 6 roads, came from the Moo Yei Do Bo Tong Ji and is one line of text each. Some techniques are further explained in the notes section but overall, little guidance is given to the true nature of Yuk Ro. It seems clear, however, that each “road” is a single technique rather than an entire form. Hwang Kee then extrapolated the information and created a signature technique in each Yuk Ro form that shaped the character of the form. It’s safe to say that Hwang Kee then gleaned other techniques to compose the form from his previous training, including 12 Road Tan Tui. Individual movements and combinations can be found in both 12 Road Tan Tui and Yuk Ro forms.

    Tan Tui Explained

    Tan Tui (彈腿) is commonly translated to “spring legs” or “springing legs” because of the double meaning of spring. The correct meaning for “spring” in this case refers to water. A better translation is likely “pond”. Tan Tui is a foundational exercise in almost all Chang Quan (long fist/boxing) systems in Northern China and came from the Hui Muslim community. Though many variations exist, two main branches are practiced today: 10 Road Tan Tui and 12 Road Tan Tui. 12 Road Tan Tui is what Hwang Kee practiced.

    The signature technique of Tan Tui is the “yoke punch”, which Soo Bahk Do practitioners call “Hwa Kuk Jang Kap Kwon”–translated Seize and Smash Long Back Fist. A yoke was a wooden bar that would “yoke” a team of oxen to pull a wagon. The yoked oxen moved as a single unit because of the yoke. In like manner, both arms work and move together in a yoke punch.

    The yoke punch differs from a Hwa Kuk Jang Kap Kwon in that the front hand strikes with the front of the fist, rather than the back of the fist. A yoke punch is a straight punch with the chest turned sideways for maximum expansion and reach. The back hand acts as a back fist to the rear, though the back hand is only practiced in the forms as you learn Chang Quan (long fist/boxing) theory. In application, it’s a single handed strike with your body turned. It is quite effective and has defensive characteristics while moving offensively.

    A Moo Duk Kwan practitioner will benefit greatly from the study of Tan Tui as it will give him/her a greater understanding of the Moo Duk Kwan system by learning the foundation on which it was built. Some of the more classical movements in Soo Bahk Do begin to be demystified as you study both the motions and applications of Tan Tui. Below is an example of some of the Tan Tui roads, modified to better complement the Moo Duk Kwan’s interpretation of Yuk Ro while still staying true to the spirit of Tan Tui.

    Video Training

    Below are what I consider the best YouTube versions of Tan Tui out there. The first video is the solo practice whereas the second is the two-person version. In the future, I will be posting my interpretation of Tan Tui based on the unique technique found within the Moo Duk Kwan.

    References:


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    1 Apr 2012

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  • Soo Bahk Do in a Teenager’s Life

    This Article comes from Wasatch Martial Arts Blog
    To see the full original article click here


    Last summer when I started Soo Bahk Do.  I was a wimpy slouched over kid. I was just coming off a school year were I had to switch schools twice do too kids picking on me. I was really shy and did not have a lot of confidence in my self. My Mom wanted me to do a Martial Art. After hearing about Wasatch Martial Arts I decided to start. Now I am testing for green belt and I cant help but look back and see how amazing it has been and what I have taken away from the class.

    I have noticed when walking down the hallways how my posture has changed. I used to hunch over and stroll down the hallways and I looked like and easy target. When starting Soo Bahk Do I was pushed to have a better posture. Now I notice when I walk down the halls of West High I no longer slouch. I feel like this proud young man.

    I have also learned how to defend my self. In 8th and 9th grade I was constantly picked on. Kids would make fun of my voice, push me over, and punch me and many other things. I am glad to say that at West that has not happened but if it were I would know how to defend my self.  If someone where to punch me out of the blue it makes me happy that I would know what to do.

    Soo Bahk Do has also made me think more about philosophy. How there are the heavens, the earth, the fire and water. And how those are all incorporated. How strength does not come from ones arm but from the waste. I just think that is fascinating.

    While reading over my paper it hit my what Soo Bahk do is to me. It is not a sport, activities or a hobby. To me Su Bahk Do is a way of life. The impacts that it has on all aspects of my life. Training in Su Bahk Do has so many more implications than maybe just playing basketball. That what makes Soo Bahk Do so special and how it makes me proud to be a person who trains in Soo Bahk Do.

    – Written by Jack Schweibert, 6th Gup Soo Bahk Do


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    4 Feb 2012

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  • Grace – What Soo Bahk Do Means To Me

    This Article comes from Wasatch Martial Arts Blog
    To see the full original article click here


    Grace – Cho Dan

    Soo Bahk Do means a lot to me. Soo Bahk Do has helped me become a stronger person both mentally and physically.  Soo Bahk Do has helped me mentally because, I have to do things in Soo Bahk Do that I wouldn’t normally think I can do but when I try I am able to do it. If I didn’t have my mind telling me that I can’t do something I wouldn’t be troubled by the voice in my head saying “stop that’s wood” for me I just need to get over the voice that says that. Although I need to work on that still Soo Bahk has helped me a lot with that. Soo Bahk Do has helped me physically because I have gotten so much stronger and more flexible. My whole body has definitely gotten stronger, I am able to do pushups and situps more easily. When I am stronger I feel better about myself and I feel as if the better I feel about myself the more confident I am about myself the better I do while training Soo Bahk Do. My flexibility has also increased and although I am not the most flexible person I will continue to work on it. Soo Bahk Do has become part of my life, in fact it has become a lifestyle. I used to just go to class and only think about it right before and right after class but now I often think about how what I’m doing will help me during Soo Bahk Do. I think I have kept on training Soo Bahk Do for all these years because I really love it! I started Soo Bahk Do when I was five in Sun Valley, Idaho with Master Whitcomb when I moved back from Sun Valley to Salt Lake City I was disappointed that I could not do Soo Bahk Do any more. When I was in third grade Master Corrales decided to open his own school in Salt Lake City when I heard that I was very excited. Even though sometimes I feel as if it is too hard I know that it is making me stronger and that stronger is better. Soo Bahk Do has also helped me in life out of Soo Bahk Do because I have missed a lot of soccer for Soo Bahk Do and even though I am missing soccer I have gotten in shape for soccer while I am training Soo Bahk Do. When I go to soccer we have to do sit-ups if we mess up and I find that they are a lot easier to do after training Soo Bahk Do because we do sit-ups in Soo Bahk Do. Soo Bahk Do has also helped me a lot in my school life. It has helped me be more disciplined with my homework and school work. I have learned how to be able to work really hard at something even though it is hard or I do not want to do it. This is a great lesson for me because it would be only too easy to give up a lot of things just because I am struggling with them,  instead if I stick with things I will get good at them and then they become more fun. Through my Soo Bahk experience I have met Master Corrales, Mr. Snarr and Mr. Rios. They all have helped me to progress and become the martial artist that I am. Master Corrales is definitely one of the reasons I have continued to train Soo Bahk Do. He has helped me a lot. He has told me that he will only let me test for my Dan if I am ready. He said I am ready to test and I believe him. He has helped me especially to understand that I am going to need a balance in my schedule because I have so much going on. He told me, “You can’t run too fast for too long eventually you have to slow down.” Master Corrales has also helped me to understand that there is so much more to Soo Bahk Do than just going to class and training because you have to have a balanced diet also. Having to have a balanced diet for Soo Bahk Do is an excuse to have a balanced diet in life and that is really good for me. Sa Bom Nim Corrales told our class that our plate of food should always be colorful and that if it is naturally colorful it is most likely a very healthy meal. Mr. Snarr is a very exciting person that is very fun to train with because he makes sure that I know that he is there to help me achieve my Dan. Mr. Snarr has helped me because he has helped me to understand that breaking is just breaking a big piece of paper. He. Mr. Rios has helped set an example of what I need to look like because he truly is a Dan. I have found that when I train Soo Bahk Do if I was tired or not feeling well before I often feel better after I train. Soo Bahk Do is a sort of healing method for me. I think Soo Bahk Do is a very good thing for me to do when I don’t feel so good because it is a natural way to feel better. For me I am always very proud when people say they do karate or something and I can say that I do Soo Bahk Do because Soo Bahk Do is special and it is not just about fighting there is an art to it and it is as if it is almost a dance. I feel like sometimes you are peaceful while training Soo Bahk Do and sometimes you are not. Training can help me deal with my problems.  I like the balance of the two because training one way can help me deal with one problem I might have and training the other way can help me deal with another problem. Overall, Soo Bahk Do has become one of the things that I hope to continue because I hope that if I continue training I will continue to become a better and stronger person. Soo Bahk!


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    4 Feb 2012

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  • Grace – Cho Dan Essay

    This Article comes from Wasatch Martial Arts Blog
    To see the full original article click here


    What Soo Bahk Do Means To Me

    Grace – Cho Dan

    Soo Bahk Do means a lot to me. Soo Bahk Do has helped me become a stronger person both mentally and physically.  Soo Bahk Do has helped me mentally because, I have to do things in Soo Bahk Do that I wouldn’t normally think I can do but when I try I am able to do it. If I didn’t have my mind telling me that I can’t do something I wouldn’t be troubled by the voice in my head saying “stop that’s wood” for me I just need to get over the voice that says that. Although I need to work on that still Soo Bahk has helped me a lot with that. Soo Bahk Do has helped me physically because I have gotten so much stronger and more flexible. My whole body has definitely gotten stronger, I am able to do pushups and situps more easily. When I am stronger I feel better about myself and I feel as if the better I feel about myself the more confident I am about myself the better I do while training Soo Bahk Do. My flexibility has also increased and although I am not the most flexible person I will continue to work on it. Soo Bahk Do has become part of my life, in fact it has become a lifestyle. I used to just go to class and only think about it right before and right after class but now I often think about how what I’m doing will help me during Soo Bahk Do. I think I have kept on training Soo Bahk Do for all these years because I really love it! I started Soo Bahk Do when I was five in Sun Valley, Idaho with Master Whitcomb when I moved back from Sun Valley to Salt Lake City I was disappointed that I could not do Soo Bahk Do any more. When I was in third grade Master Corrales decided to open his own school in Salt Lake City when I heard that I was very excited. Even though sometimes I feel as if it is too hard I know that it is making me stronger and that stronger is better. Soo Bahk Do has also helped me in life out of Soo Bahk Do because I have missed a lot of soccer for Soo Bahk Do and even though I am missing soccer I have gotten in shape for soccer while I am training Soo Bahk Do. When I go to soccer we have to do sit-ups if we mess up and I find that they are a lot easier to do after training Soo Bahk Do because we do sit-ups in Soo Bahk Do. Soo Bahk Do has also helped me a lot in my school life. It has helped me be more disciplined with my homework and school work. I have learned how to be able to work really hard at something even though it is hard or I do not want to do it. This is a great lesson for me because it would be only too easy to give up a lot of things just because I am struggling with them,  instead if I stick with things I will get good at them and then they become more fun. Through my Soo Bahk experience I have met Master Corrales, Mr. Snarr and Mr. Rios. They all have helped me to progress and become the martial artist that I am. Master Corrales is definitely one of the reasons I have continued to train Soo Bahk Do. He has helped me a lot. He has told me that he will only let me test for my Dan if I am ready. He said I am ready to test and I believe him. He has helped me especially to understand that I am going to need a balance in my schedule because I have so much going on. He told me, “You can’t run too fast for too long eventually you have to slow down.” Master Corrales has also helped me to understand that there is so much more to Soo Bahk Do than just going to class and training because you have to have a balanced diet also. Having to have a balanced diet for Soo Bahk Do is an excuse to have a balanced diet in life and that is really good for me. Sa Bom Nim Corrales told our class that our plate of food should always be colorful and that if it is naturally colorful it is most likely a very healthy meal. Mr. Snarr is a very exciting person that is very fun to train with because he makes sure that I know that he is there to help me achieve my Dan. Mr. Snarr has helped me because he has helped me to understand that breaking is just breaking a big piece of paper. He. Mr. Rios has helped set an example of what I need to look like because he truly is a Dan. I have found that when I train Soo Bahk Do if I was tired or not feeling well before I often feel better after I train. Soo Bahk Do is a sort of healing method for me. I think Soo Bahk Do is a very good thing for me to do when I don’t feel so good because it is a natural way to feel better. For me I am always very proud when people say they do karate or something and I can say that I do Soo Bahk Do because Soo Bahk Do is special and it is not just about fighting there is an art to it and it is as if it is almost a dance. I feel like sometimes you are peaceful while training Soo Bahk Do and sometimes you are not. Training can help me deal with my problems.  I like the balance of the two because training one way can help me deal with one problem I might have and training the other way can help me deal with another problem. Overall, Soo Bahk Do has become one of the things that I hope to continue because I hope that if I continue training I will continue to become a better and stronger person. Soo Bahk!


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    19 Jan 2012

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  • What Soo Bahk Do Means to Mia

    This Article comes from Wasatch Martial Arts Blog
    To see the full original article click here


    By MiaBella Brickey

    Age 12, Cho Dan

    Mia's first time wearing her dobok as a Cho Dan.

    Ms. MiaBella Brickey is our senior Cho Dan with a unique story. She is an inspiration to many in our community and a joy in the dojang. Below is her essay she wrote during her Cho Dan test:

    What Soo Bahk Do means to me is strength (I have become much stronger), balance (I have learned how to be ‘heavy’ or ‘light’), safety (I have learned how to protect myself), being prepared (I have learned to be one step ahead of my opponent), and making good decisions (I have learned how to do the right thing). I started Soo Bahk Do in third grade. What it meant to me then is very much different from what is means to me today. Back then, Soo Bahk was a class for me to go to every week and it was something I liked doing with my friends. I had fun pairing up with my friends and working on my ‘one-steps’. I thought it was something I was just going to try, I didn’t know that I would keep training. I didn’t think that I was good enough to become a red belt. I grew to love and understand the art, but really I did not realize the deeper meaning of Soo Bahk Do until I was a green belt. As I became stronger and as my understanding of the art grew, I found myself loving it more and more. I started to realize that I could become a black belt and I began to feel more confidence in my abilities. I began to believe that I was actually good at it!

    My class and I ended up with the opportunity to go to California where I competed in a sparring competition. I hadn’t done a lot of sparring and in my final bout I was paired with a boy who was older and bigger than I was. I was scared and nervous, but did my best. Although I did not win, I did win third place! I was so proud of myself! Soo Bahk Do has helped shape me to become the person I am today. Master Corrales has helped me to understand and embrace the concept of “peaceful confidence”, and has helped me with my flexibility and my overall fitness. I have become stronger by being disciplined with my forms and my stances and in becoming healthier by respecting my body and eating correctly every day. What I mean is, I have been eating healthy food not junk food. That is why you don’t want to do drugs and drink to much alcohol because what you eat or drink plays a big role in your life! You have to understand that everybody has their bad days and everybody has had the thought of not wanting to go to class or even wanting to quit. I’ve had those days, but I have never thought about quitting. Soo Bahk Do is too important to me. Every time I would think about that, I would say to myself, “Are you really just going to give up like that?” or “Is that really the best sidekick I can do?” Knowing that I am almost a black belt, I think that giving up now would be the worst decision I’ve ever made. I’m so close and I’ve worked so hard to get this far that I can’t even imagine quitting. That’s not the kind of person I am. For example, there used to be six of us that were testing in April and I remember Master Gibbons calling us the six pack… Now there’s only four of us, and were all extremely excited to accomplish something that we’ve all been working on for so long. My friends that are testing with me are awesome when it comes to supporting you, they help me when I need it, they give me advice when I ask for it. Soo Bahk Do is something I look forward to every week and I enjoy it a lot. Master Brian Corrales has inspired me for so long, and Mr. Snarr has taught me to be confident in myself. Mr. Rios is what I want to look like when I’m an E-Dan and I will always look up to him. He is always working hard and giving class a lot of effort. He is usually the one that is sweating the most after class. And he stinks. :-) Mr. Snarr always shows incredible discipline and is a huge mentor. He is always encouraging me with my breaks and helps me polish my technique. Master Corrales is the master of discipline. He expects and encourages 110% from me every day. Master Corrales is also a great mentor. Master Corrales has helped me to believe that a person’s physical size is not as important as ones mental strength and determination. He has taught me that through hard work and discipline that I can become anything I want to be. Soo Bahk Do has also helped me with my schoolwork. For example, I used to hate taking tests. I would get so worked up over them and because of the pressure; I would not do very well. Soo Bahk Do has taught me that if I try hard enough and set my mind to it, I can do it, and I can succeed.

    Soo Bahk Do is like another world for me. I can go to class and just forget about my day, or my problems. I become one with the art. I think that some day Soo Bahk Do will not only change my life but it will help me to change the lives of other people, too.

    I think that every body should try to do Soo Bahk Do. I think it will change a lot of people’s minds about Martial Arts. A lot of people think its just kicks and punches and fighting. But really it’s not! It is so much more. It is a way of life. It is a way of being successful and a way of being healthy throughout life. Soo Bahk Do is one of the best decisions I ever made. Master Corrales told me, “You can’t run too fast for too long.” He told me that because I have a busy schedule. I know that sooner or later I will not be continuing with one of my sports, but I hope I can continue Soo Bahk for a very long time. I am very lucky to be able to train Soo Bahk Do and I’m very lucky that I have such a great instructor.

    That is what Soo Bahk Do means to me.


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    25 Dec 2011

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  • Our Ryu Pa

    This Article comes from Wasatch Martial Arts Blog
    To see the full original article click here


    Ryu Pa is a Korean term that means “a river flowing down divided”.  This is the term used for the word “style”.  Ryu Pa denotes the natural progression and change of a craft or art throughout history. It is akin to the natural evolution of life as the world in which we live changes. The martial arts (moo yei) is no different. The Moo Duk Kwan style was created by the late Hwang Kee in 1945. Anyone associated with martial arts styles such as Tae Kwan Do, Tang Soo Do, Hwa Soo Do, Soo Bahk Do and other Korean Karate styles likely share Hwang Kee’s Moo Duk Kwan as the foundational Ryu Pa (Style).

    For any Korean martial art practitioner that can trace his/her roots to the Moo Duk Kwan, it is important to understand the history,  traditions, and philosophy of Hwang Kee Chang Shi Ja (Founder) and how it applied to his martial arts training and style. Only then will your eyes begin to open to who you are as a practitioner. This is similar to mankind’s curiosity towards his personal ancestors. We seek after those who have gone before us as they are a part of our unique identity.

    The scope of this article is to highlight Hwang Kee Chang Shi Ja’s personal training history as well as the training history of his direct line. To begin, Hwang Kee’s training can be divided into 4 specific areas: Tae Kyun, Master Yang Kuk Jin, Okinawan Karate, and Soo Bahk.

    Tae Kyun

    When Hwang Kee was only 7, he witnessed a fight with a Tae Kyun master defend himself against a large group of men.  Hwang Kee was so impressed that he followed the man home and eventually asked to learn.  Hwang Kee was refused because he was too young.  Determined, Hwang Kee woud watch from a distance as the master would teach Tae Kyun.  Though he never received formal training in Tae Kyun, some considered him a master in his own right by the age of 22.

    Master Yang Kuk Jin

    Later, Hwang Kee went to Manchuria to work on the railroad.  There he was able to train with Yang Kuk Jin, a master of the Chinese martial arts.  Here Hwang Kee received his only formal training which included Seh Bop (Postures), Bo  Bop (steps) and Ryun Bop (Conditioning).  He also trained in Dham Toi Sip E Ro (12 Step Tan Tui) and Tae Kuk Kwon (Tai Chi). This is all that is written in the history books, however, after further study of the Chinese Arts, it’s safe to assume that the Seh Bop and Bo Bop was Ship Sam Seh training that comprises 8 postures and 5 Steps. See my article on the Ship Sam Seh. Ryun Bop was most likely conditioning of the hands and feet as well as Ki Gong (Internal Energy Exercises) such as Moo Pahl Dan Kuhm (Ba Duan Jin or 8 Section Brocade) and Yuk Keun Kyung (Yi Jin Jing or Changing Tendon Exercises). You will find that the Chil Sung and Yuk Ro Hyung were greatly influenced by Dham Toi Sip E Ro and Tae Kuk Kwon. Future articles will be written on this topic.

    Okinawan Karate

    When Hwang Kee returned to Korea, he read books on Okinawan Karate.  The exact titles are unknown.

    After World War II, Hwang Kee opened a school teaching a new system that he created called Hwa Soo Do.  This style was heavily influenced by his training in Manchuria.  However, because of the Japanese Occupation of Korea, his art was not very well received.  One day, he spoke with the founders of Ji Do Kwan and Chung Do Kwan.  Chung Do Kwan was teaching Tang Soo Do, which had roots in Shotokan.  Ji Do Kwan was teaching Kong Soo Do, which had roots in Judo.  Both of these styles had many more students than the Moo Duk Kwan. After meeting these two founders, Hwang Kee decided he needed to integrate the art of “Tang Soo Do” into the Hwa Soo Do discipline.  At the time, Tang Soo Do was the only term for a “Karate-type” discipline that the public would recognize and accept because of their Japanese doctrinization during the past 50 years.  From the knowledge he had acquired from studying Japanese books, he began teaching Tang Soo Do while applying the Hwa Soo Do discipline of techniques.  This included a unique use of offensive and defensive hip movements in all hand techniques.  Kicks also had a unique way of extending the hips on all thrust kicks.  These along with other characteristics distinguished the Moo Duk Kwan system from others teaching “Tang Soo Do”.

    Soo Bahk

    In 1957, Hwang Kee discovered the Moo Yei Do Bo Tong Ji, the oldest Korean martial arts text known today.  Inside, he discovered a fighting art called “Soo Bahk Ki” or Soo Bahk Hee” which means hand striking techniques or dance.   He recognized the importance of “Soo Bahk” as a Korean traditional martial art and studied the book in depth.  The Moo Duk Kwan began another transformation as Hwang Kee implemented the Soo Bahk system into the Moo Duk Kwan.  This implementation has continued until the present day where the Moo Duk Kwan now practices forms taken from and based upon the teachings from the Moo Yei Do Bo Tong Ji.  In the 1990’s, the Moo Duk Kwan in the United States formally changed its name from the United States Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation to the United States Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation.  The change of the name outwardly demonstrates the Moo Duk Kwan’s change of focus from the Tang Soo Do curriculum that had a strong base in the Okinawan Karate forms to the unique Soo Bahk Do forms created by Hwang Kee such as Chil Sung, Yuk Ro, and Hwa Sun.

    Ryu Pa Today

    The Moo Duk Kwan today teaches the combined knowledge that Hwang Kee, Chang Shi Ja left to his son and successor, Hwang Hyun Chul Kwan Jang Nim.  The system is largely influenced by his teacher in China and his findings in the Moo Yei Do Bo Tong Ji along with his unique contribution on the execution of basic techniques (unique use of hip).  The “Tang Soo Do” forms are also taught, but less emphasis is placed on them today.

    Below is a diagram showing the Ryu Pa and lineage of all of the Moo Duk Kwan practitioners within Region 8 (geographic area of the Moo Duk Kwan comprising Montana, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico). Jeff Moonitz, Hu Kyun In is currently the head of our Region and all of the certified studio owners and instructors come under his leadership. Let us take a moment to understand some of the unique contributions of each of these Moo Do Pioneers that have helped mold our Ryu Pa into what it is today.

    Ryu Pa

    Researched and compiled by Oliver Whitcomb SB and Brian Corrales SB

    Oh, Sae Jung

    Not much is known about Oh, Sae Jung. He trained in Seoul at the Y.M.C.A. and trained beside C.I. He would be 87 if he were alive today. More research needs to be done to learn more.

    Taken from World Tang Soo Do website

    Shin, Jae Chul

    Shin, Jae Chul was a direct student of both Oh, Sae Jung and Kwang Kee, Chang Shi Ja. After achieving Cho Dan, he began teaching at Osan Air Base in South Korea. There he taught Koreans and Americans a like. It was there that he began teaching Chuck Norris, likely the most well-known Moo Duk Kwan practitioner of all time. Later, Chuck Norris would sponsor Master Shin, Jae Chul to the United States, becoming one of the first Korean Moo Duk Kwan instructors to come to the United States. Master Shin, Jae Chul would be instrumental in helping to establish the US Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation in Springfield, New Jersey. In 1982, he left the Federation and the Moo Duk Kwan for personal reasons and created the World Tang Soo Do Association.

    Chuck Norris

    Carlos “Chuck” Norris

    Master Carlos Norris trained at Osan Air Base in Korea. In his early days, Master Norris was a very successful tournament fighter and held on to the Professional Middleweight Karate champion title for six years. Later on he would rise to fame as a martial arts actor for a variety of action films.

    For many of his direct descendants, we remember Master Norris for creating a variation of the Ki Cho forms called Ki Cho Hyung Il Bu Sang Gup and Ki Cho Hyung E Bu Sang Gup. These two forms add variety to our training and we hold it as a unique tradition within Region 8. Ki Cho Hyung Il Bu Sang Gup is performed by executing a front thrust kick prior to each punch in Ki Cho Hyung Il Bu, working on proper posture and balance. Ki Cho Hyung E Bu Sang Gup is the same as Ki Cho Hyung Il Bu Sang Gup except for the run down the center performs the following combination: low block, reverse center punch; high block, reverse center punch; inside/outside block, reverse center punch; outside/inside block, reverse punch.

    Victor Martinov, Sa Bom

    Martinov, Sa Bom Nim is one of a handful Gu Dans (9th degree black belt) in the world. He was promoted by Hwang, Hyun Chul Kwan Jang Nim–the son of Founder Hwang Kee. Martinov, Sa Bom Nim is a charter member who helped bring Hwang Kee, Chang Shi Ja to the United States and helped created the United States Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation, later named the US Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation. Martinov, Sa Bom Nim spent decades as a member of the Technical Advisory Committee and is now a member of the Senior Advisory Committee and acts as a personal advisor to Hwang, Hyun Chul Kwan Jang Nim. His contributions and reach spans the entire United States and is considered the Grandfather of Region 8. Many of the lessons learned include: Unbendable Arm Technique, Aikido-style footwork such as step and a half pivot, Effective Knife Defenses, and a sense of natural heaviness in your technique. The list will go on and on.

    Martinov, Sa Bom Nim was a direct student of Master Norris until Master Norris decided to leave the Moo Duk Kwan. He took Moonitz Sa Bom Nim as a student and came in direct contact with Hwang Kee, Chang Shi Ja.

    Jeff Moonitz, Sa Bom

    Moonitz, Sa Bom Nim is currently a Pal Dan (8th degree black belt) and was promoted this honorary rank by Hwang, Hyun Chul Kwan Jang Nim. Like Martinov, Sa Bom Nim, he was an original charter member, who helped found the US Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation. He currently sits as a Hu Kyun In, or Guardian of the Art and is an advisor to the current Technical Advisory Committee. Moonitz, Sa Bom Nim was on the sparring team under Master Norris and was a very successful competitor. After Master Norris left the Moo Duk Kwan, Moonitz, Sa Bom Nim began training under the direction of Martinov, Sa Bom Nim while running his own successful school as a red belt.

    Moonitz, Sa Bom Nim is well known for creating within our Region the Tae Kuk breathing exercises. Being a successful tournament fighter, Moonitz, Sa Bom Nim has also taught his students his signature, high speed round kick and reverse punch.

    Oliver Whitcomb, Sa Bom

    Oliver Whitcomb, Sa Bom Nim is my personal instructor from Hailey, Idaho. Where I am today is because of him and his mentorship over the years. He is currently a Yuk Dan (6th Dan) and is the Regional Examiner for Region 8. Whitcomb, Sa Bom Nim is known for his strong moo do and unique conditioning techniques. He received a BA from the University of Washington in East Asian Studies and speaks Korean.

    The Future of Ryu Pa

    Luckily, the art continues to evolve in a natural direction. A special thanks to all of the individuals listed for their sacrifices and contributions to the art of Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan. Many of them have dedicated their life to this art and have greatly influenced the natural progression of Ryu Pa through their leadership. As the rising Gups, Dans and Ko Dan Ja continue on their moo do path, may we remember to train hard, maintain perspective of our unique history, and dedicate ourselves to the preservation and natural development of Ryu Pa into the future.

    If you have a personal memory, story, or lesson learned related to anyone listed in this article, please post a comment.


    To comment on this post, please visit the original article click here

    25 Dec 2011

  • Posted by Utah Martial Arts Feeds
  • Soo Bahk Do Institute

    This Article comes from Wasatch Martial Arts Blog
    To see the full original article click here


    Never has it been easier to stay connected to the roots of Tang Soo Do (Soo Bahk Do) Moo Duk Kwan. Whether you are currently active in the World Moo Duk Kwan under the direction of Grandmaster H.C. Hwang (son of Founder Hwang Kee) or your lineage is connected to the Founder in some way, then this new website is for you. It’s important to note that anyone who trains in Tang Soo Do or Soo Bahk Do can trace his or her history back to the founder of the Moo Duk Kwan, Hwang Kee, Kwan Jang Nim. Even most members of Tae Kwon Do trace their roots back to Grandmaster Hwang Kee.

    The Soo Bahk Do Institute is the body of knowledge of the World Moo Duk Kwan with videos of Grandmaster H.C. Hwang and others demonstrating every aspect of this classical martial art. Every form is demonstrated including the form series Ki Cho, Pyong Ahn, Naihanji, Chil Sung, and Yuk Ro. It includes additional traditional Japanese forms like Bassai, Jin Do, Lo Hai, Kong Sang Koon, Sip Soo, O Sip Sa Bo, Wang Shu, and Ji-On. There is even historic information on rarely seen Hwa Sun Hyung.

    It is important to remember that if you truly want to learn the material within the Soo Bahk Do Institute, you should connect with your closest certified instructor in the Moo Duk Kwan. If you would like help locating a certified instructor in your area, leave a comment. If you are in the Salt Lake City area, let’s get in touch as I am a registered affiliate of the Soo Bahk Do Institute and a certified instructor under the Moo Duk Kwan.

    Listen to Grandmaster H.C. Hwang’s message on the Soo Bahk Do Institute here.


    To comment on this post, please visit the original article click here

    10 Dec 2011

  • Posted by Utah Martial Arts Feeds
  • Our Ryu Pa

    This Article comes from Wasatch Martial Arts Blog
    To see the full original article click here


    Ryu Pa is a Korean term that means “a river flowing down divided”.  This is the term used for the word “style”.  Ryu Pa denotes the natural progression and change of a craft or art throughout history. It is akin to the natural evolution of life as the world in which we live changes. The martial arts (moo yei) is no different. The Moo Duk Kwan style was created by the late Hwang Kee in 1945. Anyone associated with martial arts styles such as Tae Kwan Do, Tang Soo Do, Hwa Soo Do, Soo Bahk Do and other Korean Karate styles likely share Hwang Kee’s Moo Duk Kwan as the foundational Ryu Pa (Style).

    For any Korean martial art practitioner that can trace his/her roots to the Moo Duk Kwan, it is important to understand the history,  traditions, and philosophy of Hwang Kee Chang Shi Ja (Founder) and how it applied to his martial arts training and style. Only then will your eyes begin to open to who you are as a practitioner. This is similar to mankind’s curiosity towards his personal ancestors. We seek after those who have gone before us as they are a part of our unique identity.

    The scope of this article is to highlight Hwang Kee Chang Shi Ja’s personal training history as well as the training history of his direct line. To begin, Hwang Kee’s training can be divided into 4 specific areas: Tae Kyun, Master Yang Kuk Jin, Okinawan Karate, and Soo Bahk.

    Tae Kyun

    When Hwang Kee was only 7, he witnessed a fight with a Tae Kyun master defend himself against a large group of men.  Hwang Kee was so impressed that he followed the man home and eventually asked to learn.  Hwang Kee was refused because he was too young.  Determined, Hwang Kee woud watch from a distance as the master would teach Tae Kyun.  Though he never received formal training in Tae Kyun, some considered him a master in his own right by the age of 22.

    Master Yang Kuk Jin

    Later, Hwang Kee went to Manchuria to work on the railroad.  There he was able to train with Yang Kuk Jin, a master of the Chinese martial arts.  Here Hwang Kee received his only formal training which included Seh Bop (Postures), Bo  Bop (steps) and Ryun Bop (Conditioning).  He also trained in Dham Toi Sip E Ro (12 Step Tan Tui) and Tae Kuk Kwon (Tai Chi). This is all that is written in the history books, however, after further study of the Chinese Arts, it’s safe to assume that the Seh Bop and Bo Bop was Ship Sam Seh training that comprises 8 postures and 5 Steps. See my article on the Ship Sam Seh. Ryun Bop was most likely conditioning of the hands and feet as well as Ki Gong (Internal Energy Exercises) such as Moo Pahl Dan Kuhm (Ba Duan Jin or 8 Section Brocade) and Yuk Keun Kyung (Yi Jin Jing or Changing Tendon Exercises). You will find that the Chil Sung and Yuk Ro Hyung were greatly influenced by Dham Toi Sip E Ro and Tae Kuk Kwon. Future articles will be written on this topic.

    Okinawan Karate

    When Hwang Kee returned to Korea, he read books on Okinawan Karate.  The exact titles are unknown.

    After World War II, Hwang Kee opened a school teaching a new system that he created called Hwa Soo Do.  This style was heavily influenced by his training in Manchuria.  However, because of the Japanese Occupation of Korea, his art was not very well received.  One day, he spoke with the founders of Ji Do Kwan and Chung Do Kwan.  Chung Do Kwan was teaching Tang Soo Do, which had roots in Shotokan.  Ji Do Kwan was teaching Kong Soo Do, which had roots in Judo.  Both of these styles had many more students than the Moo Duk Kwan. After meeting these two founders, Hwang Kee decided he needed to integrate the art of “Tang Soo Do” into the Hwa Soo Do discipline.  At the time, Tang Soo Do was the only term for a “Karate-type” discipline that the public would recognize and accept because of their Japanese doctrinization during the past 50 years.  From the knowledge he had acquired from studying Japanese books, he began teaching Tang Soo Do while applying the Hwa Soo Do discipline of techniques.  This included a unique use of offensive and defensive hip movements in all hand techniques.  Kicks also had a unique way of extending the hips on all thrust kicks.  These along with other characteristics distinguished the Moo Duk Kwan system from others teaching “Tang Soo Do”.

    Soo Bahk

    In 1957, Hwang Kee discovered the Moo Yei Do Bo Tong Ji, the oldest Korean martial arts text known today.  Inside, he discovered a fighting art called “Soo Bahk Ki” or Soo Bahk Hee” which means hand striking techniques or dance.   He recognized the importance of “Soo Bahk” as a Korean traditional martial art and studied the book in depth.  The Moo Duk Kwan began another transformation as Hwang Kee implemented the Soo Bahk system into the Moo Duk Kwan.  This implementation has continued until the present day where the Moo Duk Kwan now practices forms taken from and based upon the teachings from the Moo Yei Do Bo Tong Ji.  In the 1990’s, the Moo Duk Kwan in the United States formally changed its name from the United States Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation to the United States Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation.  The change of the name outwardly demonstrates the Moo Duk Kwan’s change of focus from the Tang Soo Do curriculum that had a strong base in the Okinawan Karate forms to the unique Soo Bahk Do forms created by Hwang Kee such as Chil Sung, Yuk Ro, and Hwa Sun.

    Ryu Pa Today

    The Moo Duk Kwan today teaches the combined knowledge that Hwang Kee, Chang Shi Ja left to his son and successor, Hwang Hyun Chul Kwan Jang Nim.  The system is largely influenced by his teacher in China and his findings in the Moo Yei Do Bo Tong Ji along with his unique contribution on the execution of basic techniques (unique use of hip).  The “Tang Soo Do” forms are also taught, but less emphasis is placed on them today.

    Below is a diagram showing the Ryu Pa and lineage of all of the Moo Duk Kwan practitioners within Region 8 (geographic area of the Moo Duk Kwan comprising Montana, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico). Jeff Moonitz, Hu Kyun In is currently the head of our Region and all of the certified studio owners and instructors come under his leadership. Let us take a moment to understand some of the unique contributions of each of these Moo Do Pioneers that have helped mold our Ryu Pa into what it is today.

    Ryu Pa

    Researched and compiled by Oliver Whitcomb SB and Brian Corrales SB

    Oh, Sae Jung

    Not much is known about Oh, Sae Jung. He trained in Seoul at the Y.M.C.A. and trained beside C.I. He would be 87 if he were alive today. More research needs to be done to learn more.

    Taken from World Tang Soo Do website

    Shin, Jae Chul

    Shin, Jae Chul was a direct student of both Oh, Sae Jung and Kwang Kee, Chang Shi Ja. After achieving Cho Dan, he began teaching at Osan Air Base in South Korea. There he taught Koreans and Americans a like. It was there that he began teaching Chuck Norris, likely the most well-known Moo Duk Kwan practitioner of all time. Later, Chuck Norris would sponsor Master Shin, Jae Chul to the United States, becoming one of the first Korean Moo Duk Kwan instructors to come to the United States. Master Shin, Jae Chul would be instrumental in helping to establish the US Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation in Springfield, New Jersey. In 1982, he left the Federation and the Moo Duk Kwan for personal reasons and created the World Tang Soo Do Association.

    Chuck Norris

    Carlos “Chuck” Norris

    Master Carlos Norris trained at Osan Air Base in Korea. In his early days, Master Norris was a very successful tournament fighter and held on to the Professional Middleweight Karate champion title for six years. Later on he would rise to fame as a martial arts actor for a variety of action films.

    For many of his direct descendants, we remember Master Norris for creating a variation of the Ki Cho forms called Ki Cho Hyung Il Bu Sang Gup and Ki Cho Hyung E Bu Sang Gup. These two forms add variety to our training and we hold it as a unique tradition within Region 8. Ki Cho Hyung Il Bu Sang Gup is performed by executing a front thrust kick prior to each punch in Ki Cho Hyung Il Bu, working on proper posture and balance. Ki Cho Hyung E Bu Sang Gup is the same as Ki Cho Hyung Il Bu Sang Gup except for the run down the center performs the following combination: low block, reverse center punch; high block, reverse center punch; inside/outside block, reverse center punch; outside/inside block, reverse punch.

    Victor Martinov, Sa Bom

    Martinov, Sa Bom Nim is one of a handful Gu Dans (9th degree black belt) in the world. He was promoted by Hwang, Hyun Chul Kwan Jang Nim–the son of Founder Hwang Kee. Martinov, Sa Bom Nim is a charter member who helped bring Hwang Kee, Chang Shi Ja to the United States and helped created the United States Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation, later named the US Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation. Martinov, Sa Bom Nim spent decades as a member of the Technical Advisory Committee and is now a member of the Senior Advisory Committee and acts as a personal advisor to Hwang, Hyun Chul Kwan Jang Nim. His contributions and reach spans the entire United States and is considered the Grandfather of Region 8. Many of the lessons learned include: Unbendable Arm Technique, Aikido-style footwork such as step and a half pivot, Effective Knife Defenses, and a sense of natural heaviness in your technique. The list will go on and on.

    Martinov, Sa Bom Nim was a direct student of Master Norris until Master Norris decided to leave the Moo Duk Kwan. He took Moonitz Sa Bom Nim as a student and came in direct contact with Hwang Kee, Chang Shi Ja.

    Jeff Moonitz, Sa Bom

    Moonitz, Sa Bom Nim is currently a Pal Dan (8th degree black belt) and was promoted this honorary rank by Hwang, Hyun Chul Kwan Jang Nim. Like Martinov, Sa Bom Nim, he was an original charter member, who helped found the US Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation. He currently sits as a Hu Kyun In, or Guardian of the Art and is an advisor to the current Technical Advisory Committee. Moonitz, Sa Bom Nim was on the sparring team under Master Norris and was a very successful competitor. After Master Norris left the Moo Duk Kwan, Moonitz, Sa Bom Nim began training under the direction of Martinov, Sa Bom Nim while running his own successful school as a red belt.

    Moonitz, Sa Bom Nim is well known for creating within our Region the Tae Kuk breathing exercises. Being a successful tournament fighter, Moonitz, Sa Bom Nim has also taught his students his signature, high speed round kick and reverse punch.

    Oliver Whitcomb, Sa Bom

    Oliver Whitcomb, Sa Bom Nim is my personal instructor from Hailey, Idaho. Where I am today is because of him and his mentorship over the years. He is currently a Yuk Dan (6th Dan) and is the Regional Examiner for Region 8. Whitcomb, Sa Bom Nim is known for his strong moo do and unique conditioning techniques.

    The Future of Ryu Pa

    Luckily, the art continues to evolve in a natural direction. A special thanks to all of the individuals listed for their sacrifices and contributions to the art of Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan. Many of them have dedicated their life to this art and have greatly influenced the natural progression of Ryu Pa through their leadership. As the rising Gups, Dans and Ko Dan Ja continue on their moo do path, may we remember to train hard, maintain perspective of our unique history, and dedicate ourselves to the preservation and natural development of Ryu Pa into the future.


    Ryu Pa is a Korean term that means “a river flowing down divided”.  This is the term used for the word “style”.  The Moo Duk Kwan style was created by the late Hwang Kee.  To understand his style, it is important to understand his martial arts training.  Hwang Kee’s training can be divided into 4 specific areas.
    When Hwang Kee was only 7, he witnessed a fight with a Tae Kyun master defend himself against a large group of men.  Hwang Kee was so impressed that he followed the man home and eventually asked to learn.  Hwang Kee was refused because he was too young.  Determined, Hwang Kee woud watch from a distance as the master would teach Tae Kyun.  Though he never received formal training in Tae Kyun, some considered him a master in his own right by the age of 22.
    Later, Hwang Kee went to Manchuria to work on the railroad.  There he was able to train with Yang Kuk Jin, a master of the Chinese martial arts.  Here Hwang Kee received his only formal training which included Seh Bop (Postures), Bo  Bop (steps) and Ryun Bop (Conditioning).  He also trained in Dham Toi Sip E Ro (12 Step Tan Tui) and Tae Kuk Kwon (Tai Chi).
    When Hwang Kee returned to Korea, he ready books on Okinawan Karate.  The exact titles are unknown.
    After World War II, Hwang Kee opened a school teaching a new system that he created called Hwa Soo Do.  This style was heavily influenced by his training in Manchuria.  However, because of the Japanese Occupation of Korea, his art was not very well received.  One day, he spoke with the founders of Ji Do Kwan and Chung Do Kwan.  Chung Do Kwan was teaching Tang Soo Do, which had roots in Shotokan.  Ji Do Kwan was teaching Kong Soo Do, which had roots in Judo.  Both of these styles had many more students than the Moo Duk Kwan. After meeting these two founders, Hwang Kee decided he needed to integrate the art of “Tang Soo Do” into the Hwa Soo Do discipline.  At the time, Tang Soo Do was the only term for a “Karate-type” discipline that the public would recognize and accept because of their Japanese doctrinization during the past 50 years.  From the knowledge he had acquired from studying Japanese books, he began teaching Tang Soo Do while applying the Hwa Soo Do discipline of techniques.  This included a unique use of offensive and defensive hip movements in all hand techniques.  Kicks also had a unique way of extending the hips on all thrust kicks.  These along with other characteristics distinguished the Moo Duk Kwan system from others teaching “Tang Soo Do”.
    In 1957, Hwang Kee discovered the Moo Yei Do Bo Tong Ji, the oldest Korean martial arts text known today.  Inside, he discovered a fighting art called “Soo Bahk Ki” or Soo Bahk Hee” which means hand striking techniques or dance.   He recognized the importance of “Soo Bahk” as a Korean traditional martial art and studied the book in depth.  The Moo Duk Kwan began another transformation as Hwang Kee implemented the Soo Bahk system into the Moo Duk Kwan.  This implementation has continued until the present day where the Moo Duk Kwan now practices forms taken from and based upon the teachings from the Moo Yei Do Bo Tong Ji.  In the 1990’s, the Moo Duk Kwan in the United States formally changed its name from the United States Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation to the United States Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation.  The change of the name outwardly demonstrates the Moo Duk Kwan’s change of focus from the Tang Soo Do curriculum that had a strong base in the Okinawan Karate forms to the unique Soo Bahk Do forms created by Hwang Kee such as Chil Sung, Yuk Ro, and Hwa Sun.
    The Moo Duk Kwan today teaches the combined knowledge that Hwang Kee left to his son and successor, Hwang Hyun Chul.  The system is largely influenced by his teacher in China and his findings in the Moo Yei Do Bo Tong Ji along with his unique findings on the execution of basic techniques (unique use of hip).  The “Tang Soo Do” forms are also taught, but less emphasis is placed on them today.

    To comment on this post, please visit the original article click here